The Self Assessment Questions are listed below.
Each link represents one quiz containing 4 to 10 questions each and named after the Pediatric Nephrology journal article they originated from.
To review the articles, please see the Published Educational Articles page.

We invite you to select from the following drop-down list, the theme you want to work on.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Measuring and estimating glomerular filtration rate in children

Life expectancy with chronic kidney disease: an educational review

The path to chronic kidney disease following acute kidney injury: a neonatal perspective

Lessons learned from ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry

Toxic environmental exposures and kidney health in children

Growth hormone therapy in children with CKD after more than two decades of practice

Severe antenatally diagnosed renal disorders: background, prognosis and practical approach

Perioperative fluid management and postoperative hyponatremia in children

Etiology and management of dyslipidemia in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease

Evidence-based guidelines for the management of hypertension in children with chronic kidney disease

Tobacco and the pediatric chronic kidney disease population

Diabetic kidney disease in children and adolescents

Calcific uraemic arteriolopathy: a rare disease with a potentially high impact on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder

Aliskiren, the first direct renin inhibitor: assessing a role in pediatric hypertension and kidney diseases

Gadolinium and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: an update

Assessment of nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease and on dialysis

Remnant nephron physiology and the progression of chronic kidney disease

Is obesity a risk factor for chronic kidney disease in children?

Cardiovascular risk assessment in children with chronic kidney disease

Endothelin antagonists in hypertension and kidney disease

Renal dysfunction in methylmalonic acidurias: review for the pediatric nephrologist

Immunizations in children with chronic kidney disease

Renal involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children

Dyslipidemia in children with CKD: should we treat with statins?

Microalbuminuria: causes and implications

Renal amyloidosis in children

Microvascular disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and obesity



Kidney retransplantation in children following rejection and recurrent disease

A systems-based approach to managing blood pressure in children following kidney transplantation

Transplant immuno-diagnostics: crossmatch and antigen detection

Renal transplantation in infants

Paediatric obesity and renal transplantation: current challenges and solutions

Translational implications of endothelial cell dysfunction in association with chronic allograft rejection

Strategies to optimize kidney recovery and preservation in transplantation: specific aspects in pediatric transplantation

Transplantation in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: liver and/or kidney?

Biologics in renal transplantation

Peri-operative kidney injury and long-term chronic kidney disease following orthotopic heart transplantation in children

Management of proteinuria in the transplanted patient

Viral surveillance and subclinical viral infection in pediatric kidney transplantation

HLA sensitisation: can its be prevented?

Heightened graft failure risk during emerging adulthood and transition to adult care

Acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection in pediatric kidney transplantation

New-onset diabetes after kidney transplant in children

Therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric renal transplantation

Malignancies after pediatric kidney transplantation: more than PTLD?

Solid organ transplantation following end-organ failure in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

Combined liver and kidney transplantation in children

Metabolic syndrome in children with chronic kidney disease and after renal transplantation

Steroid withdrawal in renal transplantation

Non-viral infections in children after renal transplantation

Surveillance biopsies in children post-kidney transplant

Advances in diagnosing and managing antibody-mediated rejection

In praise of arrays

Chronic allograft nephropathy

Growth after renal transplantation

Mechanism of cellular rejection in transplantation

Urinary tract infections in children after renal transplantation

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

Long-term outcome after renal transplantation in childhood

Hypertension after renal transplantation



Should sodium removal in peritoneal dialysis be estimated from the ultrafiltration volume?

Health-related quality of life in patients with pediatric onset of end-stage renal disease: state of the art and recommendations for clinical practice

Nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis

Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in children

Trace elements in dialysis

Psychosocial support for children and families requiring renal replacement therapy

Therapeutic plasma exchange for the treatment of pediatric renal disease in 2013

The role of molecular adsorbent recirculating system dialysis for extracorporeal liver support in children

Practical aspects of arteriovenous fistula formation in the pediatric population

Home haemodialysis

Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome

Alternatives to standard unfractionated heparin for pediatric hemodialysis treatments



Diuretics in the treatment of hypertension

Blood pressure (BP) assessment - from BP level to BP variability

Abnormalities of vascular structure and function in pediatric hypertension

Rational use of antihypertensive medications in children

The changing face of pediatric hypertension in the era of the childhood obesity epidemic

Hypertensive crisis in children

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in children with kidney diseases


Genetic Disorders of the Kidney

Genetic studies of IgA nephropathy: past, present, and future

Renal malformations associated with mutations of developmental genes: messages from the clinic

Cystinosis: practical tools for diagnosis and treatment

Dent's disease: clinical features and molecular basis

Glomerulocystic kidney disease

Kidney disease in nail-patella syndrome

Familial forms of nephrotic syndrome

Congenital nephrotic syndrome


Familial hematuria


Chronic Dialysis

Intradialytic hypotension

Nutrition aspects in children receiving maintenance hemodialysis: impact on outcome


Urinary Tract Disorders

Acute pyelonephritis in children

The long-term management and outcomes of cloacal anomalies

Urinary schistosomiasis

What is the efficacy of circumcision in boys with complex urinary tract abnormalities?

Surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux in children

Managing urinary infections

Nocturnal enuresis-theoretic background and practical guidelines

Ciliopathies: and expanding disease spectrum

Imaging of the urinary tract: the role of CT and MRI


Neprotic Syndrome

Podocyte directed therapy of nephrotic syndrome - can we bring the inside out?

The glomerular permeability factors in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

Defining nephrotic syndrome from an integrative genomics perspective

Congenital nephrotic syndrome and recurrence of proteinuria after renal transplantation

The nephrotic syndrome: pathogenesis and treatment of edema formation and secondary complications

Venous tromboembolism in pediatric nephrotic syndrome

Treatment of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: new guidelines from KDIGO

Treatment of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children: new guidelines from KDIGO

New therapies in steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome


Uro and Nephrolithiasis

Pediatric urolithiasis: the current surgical management

Genetic causes of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis

Diagnostic examination of the child with urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis

Nephrocalcinosis in preterm neonates

Physiopathology and etiology of stone formation in the kidney and the urinary tract

Nephrolithiasis related to inborn metabolic diseases

History, epidemiology and regional diversities of urolithiasis

Medical treatment of pediatric urolithiasis


Glomerular Disorders

Platelet abnormalities in nephrotic syndrome

Viral-associated glomerulopathies in children

Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life

Fertility preservation in patients receiving cyclophosphamide therapy for renal disease

Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis

Proteinuria and progression of glomerular diseases

Safety in glomerular numbers

Women and Alport syndrome


Acute Renal Failure

Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy



aHUS caused by complement dysregulation: new therapies on the horizon

The thrombotic microangiopathies

Complement and the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in children

Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome

Treatment and outcome of Shiga-toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome



Role of therapeutic plasmapheresis in ANCA-associated vasculitis

Vasculitis: do we know more to classify better?

The "other" vasculitis syndromes and kidney involvement

Small vessel vasculitis

Medium-size-vessel vasculitis

Large vessel vasculitis


Common Glomerular Disorders in Children

C3 Glomerulopathy

TRPC channel modulation in podocytes - inching toward novel treatments for glomerular disease

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Membranous nephropathy in children: clinical presentation and therapeutic approach

Idiopathic immunoglobulin A nephropathy in children and adolescents



Hypophosphatemic rickets due to perturbations in renal tubular function

Phosphate homeostasis and its role in bone health

Genetic disorders of phosphate regulation

CKD-MBD after kidney transplantation

Parathyroid hormone and growth in chronic kidney disease



Primary hyperoxalurias: diagnosis and treatment

Tuberous sclerosis complex: the past and the future

The blind kidney: disorders affecting kidneys and eyes

Current management of antenatal hydronephrosis

Cystinosis: the evolution of a treatable disease


Neurogenic Bladder

Neurogenic bladder: etiology and assessment

The neurogenic bladder: medical treatment

Myelomeningocele: neglected aspects

Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in spina bifida


Fluid and Electrolytes

Disorders of calcium and magnesium balance: a physiology-based approach

Claudins in renal physiology and disease

New aspects in the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of hyponatremic encephalopathy in children

Fluid and electrolyte therapy: a primer


Cystic Kidney Disorders

Autophagy in renal diseases

Looking at the (w)hole: magnet resonance imaging in polycystic kidney disease

Diagnosis and management of childrhood polycystic kidney disease


Nephrology Emergencies

Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia

Management of toxic ingestions with the use of renal replacement therapy


Acute Kidney Injury

Drug-associated acute kidney injury: who's at risk?

Renal vascular thrombosis in the newborn

Renal angina: an emerging paradigm to identify children at risk for acute kidney injury

Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy


Tubular Disorders

Pathophysiology and clinical presentations of salt-losing tubulopathies

Developmental changes in renal tubular transport - an overview

Uromodulin: old friend with new roles in health and disease

Bartter - and Gitelman - like syndromes: salt-losing tubulopathies with loop or DCT defects



Assessment of kidney function in preterm infants: lifelong implications

Nephron number and its determinants in early life: a primer

♦ Renal tubular dysgenesis

PAX2 in human kidney malformation and disease

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

Recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation

Recurrence of nephrotic syndrome/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis following renal transplantation in children

Atypical HUS

Genetics and complement in atypical HUS

aHUS caused by complement dysregulation: new therapies on the horizon


Understanding renal posttransplantation anemia in the pediatric population

Resistance to erythropoietin-stimulating agents: etiology, evaluation, and therapeutic considerations

Hepcidin in anemia of chronic kidney disease: review for the pediatric nephrologist

Drugs and Kidney

Drug-induced acid-base disorders

The role of genetics in drug dosing

Urinary Tract Infections

Long-term, low-dose prophylaxis against urinary tract infections in young children

Radiology and the Urinary Tract

Imaging in the evaluation of renovascular disease

Renal Tumors in Childhood

Renal tumours: long-term outcome

Chronic Kidney Disorders

Cystic kidney disease: many ways to form a cyst

Renal Biopsy

The renal biopsy in the genomic era


♦ Renal consequences of parenteral nutrition


♦ The management of Childhood urinary incontinence


♦ Vaccinations in children on immunosuppressive medications for renal disease