Self Assessment Questions

The Self Assessment Questions are listed below. Each link represents one quiz containing 4 to 10 questions each and named after the Pediatric Nephrology journal article they originated from.

To review the articles, please see the Published Educational Articles page.

We invite you to select from the following drop-down list, the theme you want to work on.

Acute Kidney Injury Acute Renal Failure Anemia Atypical HUS Bone Chronic Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disorders Common Glomerular Disorders in Children Cystic Kidney Disorders Development Dialysis Drugs & the Kidney Enuresis Fluid & Electrolytes Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Genetics Genetic Disorders of the Kidney Glomerular Disorders HUS Hypertension Immunology Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrology Emergencies Neurogenic Bladder Nutrition Radiology & the Urinary Tract Renal Biopsy Renal Tumors in Childhood Transplant Tubular Disorders Urinary Tract Disorders Urinary Tract Infections Uro & Nephrolithiasis Vasculitis

Chronic Kidney Disease

♦ Measuring and estimating glomerular filtration rate in children

♦ Life expectancy with chronic kidney disease: an educational review

♦ The path to chronic kidney disease following acute kidney injury: a neonatal perspective

♦ Lessons learned from ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry

♦ Toxic environmental exposures and kidney health in children

♦ Growth hormone therapy in children with CKD after more than two decades of practice

♦ Severe antenatally diagnosed renal disorders: background, prognosis and practical approach

♦ Perioperative fluid management and postoperative hyponatremia in children

♦ Etiology and management of dyslipidemia in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease

♦ Evidence-based guidelines for the management of hypertension in children with chronic kidney disease

♦ Tobacco and the pediatric chronic kidney disease population

♦ Diabetic kidney disease in children and adolescents

♦ Calcific uraemic arteriolopathy: a rare disease with a potentially high impact on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder

♦ Aliskiren, the first direct renin inhibitor: assessing a role in pediatric hypertension and kidney diseases

♦ Gadolinium and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: an update

♦ Assessment of nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease and on dialysis

♦ Remnant nephron physiology and the progression of chronic kidney disease

♦ Is obesity a risk factor for chronic kidney disease in children?

♦ Cardiovascular risk assessment in children with chronic kidney disease

♦ Endothelin antagonists in hypertension and kidney disease

♦ Renal dysfunction in methylmalonic acidurias: review for the pediatric nephrologist

♦ Immunizations in children with chronic kidney disease

♦ Renal involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies

♦ Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children

♦ Dyslipidemia in children with CKD: should we treat with statins?

♦ Microalbuminuria: causes and implications

♦ Renal amyloidosis in children

♦ Microvascular disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and obesity

Clinical Nephrology

♦ Generic immunosuppressants

♦ Renal, auricular, and ocular outcomes of Alport syndrome and their current management


♦ Kidney retransplantation in children following rejection and recurrent disease

♦ A systems-based approach to managing blood pressure in children following kidney transplantation

♦ Transplant immuno-diagnostics: crossmatch and antigen detection

♦ Renal transplantation in infants

♦ Paediatric obesity and renal transplantation: current challenges and solutions

♦ Translational implications of endothelial cell dysfunction in association with chronic allograft rejection

♦ Strategies to optimize kidney recovery and preservation in transplantation: specific aspects in pediatric transplantation

♦ Transplantation in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: liver and/or kidney?

♦ Biologics in renal transplantation

♦ Peri-operative kidney injury and long-term chronic kidney disease following orthotopic heart transplantation in children

♦ Management of proteinuria in the transplanted patient

♦ Viral surveillance and subclinical viral infection in pediatric kidney transplantation

♦ HLA sensitisation: can its be prevented?

♦ Heightened graft failure risk during emerging adulthood and transition to adult care

♦ Acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection in pediatric kidney transplantation

♦ New-onset diabetes after kidney transplant in children

♦ Therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric renal transplantation

♦ Malignancies after pediatric kidney transplantation: more than PTLD?

♦ Solid organ transplantation following end-organ failure in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

♦ Combined liver and kidney transplantation in children

♦ Metabolic syndrome in children with chronic kidney disease and after renal transplantation

♦ Steroid withdrawal in renal transplantation

♦ Non-viral infections in children after renal transplantation

♦ Surveillance biopsies in children post-kidney transplant

♦ Advances in diagnosing and managing antibody-mediated rejection

♦ In praise of arrays

♦ Chronic allograft nephropathy

♦ Growth after renal transplantation

♦ Mechanism of cellular rejection in transplantation

♦ Urinary tract infections in children after renal transplantation

♦ Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

♦ Long-term outcome after renal transplantation in childhood

♦ Hypertension after renal transplantation

♦ Clinical value of ambulatory blood pressure in pediatric patients after renal transplantation


♦ Should sodium removal in peritoneal dialysis be estimated from the ultrafiltration volume?

♦ Health-related quality of life in patients with pediatric onset of end-stage renal disease: state of the art and recommendations for clinical practice

♦ Nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis

♦ Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in children

♦ Trace elements in dialysis

♦ Psychosocial support for children and families requiring renal replacement therapy

♦ Therapeutic plasma exchange for the treatment of pediatric renal disease in 2013

♦ The role of molecular adsorbent recirculating system dialysis for extracorporeal liver support in children

♦ Practical aspects of arteriovenous fistula formation in the pediatric population

♦ Home haemodialysis

♦ Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome

♦ Alternatives to standard unfractionated heparin for pediatric hemodialysis treatments

♦ Vitamin and trace element deficiencies in the pediatric dialysis patient


♦ Diuretics in the treatment of hypertension

♦ Blood pressure (BP) assessment – from BP level to BP variability

♦ Abnormalities of vascular structure and function in pediatric hypertension

♦ Rational use of antihypertensive medications in children

♦ The changing face of pediatric hypertension in the era of the childhood obesity epidemic

♦ Hypertensive crisis in children

♦ Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in children with kidney diseases

Genetic Disorders of the Kidney

♦ Genetic studies of IgA nephropathy: past, present, and future

♦ Renal malformations associated with mutations of developmental genes: messages from the clinic

♦ Cystinosis: practical tools for diagnosis and treatment

♦ Dent’s disease: clinical features and molecular basis

♦ Glomerulocystic kidney disease

♦ Kidney disease in nail-patella syndrome

♦ Familial forms of nephrotic syndrome

♦ Congenital nephrotic syndrome

♦ Nephronophthisis

♦ Familial hematuria

Chronic Dialysis

♦ Intradialytic hypotension

♦ Nutrition aspects in children receiving maintenance hemodialysis: impact on outcome

Urinary Tract Disorders

♦ Acute pyelonephritis in children

♦ The long-term management and outcomes of cloacal anomalies

♦ Urinary schistosomiasis

♦ What is the efficacy of circumcision in boys with complex urinary tract abnormalities?

♦ Surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux in children

♦ Managing urinary infections

♦ Nocturnal enuresis-theoretic background and practical guidelines

♦ Ciliopathies: and expanding disease spectrum

♦ Imaging of the urinary tract: the role of CT and MRI

♦ Clinical management of nocturnal enuresis

Neprotic Syndrome

♦ Podocyte directed therapy of nephrotic syndrome – can we bring the inside out?

♦ The glomerular permeability factors in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

♦ Defining nephrotic syndrome from an integrative genomics perspective

♦ Congenital nephrotic syndrome and recurrence of proteinuria after renal transplantation

♦ The nephrotic syndrome: pathogenesis and treatment of edema formation and secondary complications

♦ Venous tromboembolism in pediatric nephrotic syndrome

♦ Treatment of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: new guidelines from KDIGO

♦ Treatment of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children: new guidelines from KDIGO

♦ New therapies in steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

Uro and Nephrolithiasis

♦ Pediatric urolithiasis: the current surgical management

♦ Genetic causes of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis

♦ Diagnostic examination of the child with urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis

♦ Nephrocalcinosis in preterm neonates

♦ Physiopathology and etiology of stone formation in the kidney and the urinary tract

♦ Nephrolithiasis related to inborn metabolic diseases

♦ History, epidemiology and regional diversities of urolithiasis

♦ Medical treatment of pediatric urolithiasis

Glomerular Disorders

♦ Platelet abnormalities in nephrotic syndrome

♦ Viral-associated glomerulopathies in children

♦ Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life

♦ Fertility preservation in patients receiving cyclophosphamide therapy for renal disease

♦ Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis

♦ Proteinuria and progression of glomerular diseases

♦ Safety in glomerular numbers

♦ Women and Alport syndrome

Acute Renal Failure

♦ Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy


♦ aHUS caused by complement dysregulation: new therapies on the horizon

♦ The thrombotic microangiopathies

♦ Complement and the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in children

♦ Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome

♦ Treatment and outcome of Shiga-toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome


♦ Role of therapeutic plasmapheresis in ANCA-associated vasculitis

♦ Vasculitis: do we know more to classify better?

♦ The “other” vasculitis syndromes and kidney involvement

♦ Small vessel vasculitis

♦ Medium-size-vessel vasculitis

♦ Large vessel vasculitis

Common Glomerular Disorders in Children

♦ C3 Glomerulopathy

♦ TRPC channel modulation in podocytes – inching toward novel treatments for glomerular disease

♦ Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

♦ Membranous nephropathy in children: clinical presentation and therapeutic approach

♦ Idiopathic immunoglobulin A nephropathy in children and adolescents


♦ Hypophosphatemic rickets due to perturbations in renal tubular function

♦ Phosphate homeostasis and its role in bone health

♦ Genetic disorders of phosphate regulation

♦ CKD-MBD after kidney transplantation

♦ Parathyroid hormone and growth in chronic kidney disease


♦ Primary hyperoxalurias: diagnosis and treatment

♦ Tuberous sclerosis complex: the past and the future

♦ The blind kidney: disorders affecting kidneys and eyes

♦ Current management of antenatal hydronephrosis

♦ Cystinosis: the evolution of a treatable disease

Neurogenic Bladder

♦ Neurogenic bladder: etiology and assessment

♦ The neurogenic bladder: medical treatment

♦ Myelomeningocele: neglected aspects

♦ Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in spina bifida

Fluid and Electrolytes

♦ Disorders of calcium and magnesium balance: a physiology-based approach

♦ Claudins in renal physiology and disease

♦ New aspects in the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of hyponatremic encephalopathy in children

♦ Fluid and electrolyte therapy: a primer

Cystic Kidney Disorders

♦ Autophagy in renal diseases

♦ Looking at the (w)hole: magnet resonance imaging in polycystic kidney disease

♦ Diagnosis and management of childrhood polycystic kidney disease

Nephrology Emergencies

♦ Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia

♦ Management of toxic ingestions with the use of renal replacement therapy

Acute Kidney Injury

♦ Drug-associated acute kidney injury: who’s at risk?

♦ Renal vascular thrombosis in the newborn

♦ Renal angina: an emerging paradigm to identify children at risk for acute kidney injury

♦ Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy

♦ Infections and the kidney: a tale from the tropics

Tubular Disorders

♦ Pathophysiology and clinical presentations of salt-losing tubulopathies

♦ Developmental changes in renal tubular transport – an overview

♦ Uromodulin: old friend with new roles in health and disease

♦ Bartter – and Gitelman – like syndromes: salt-losing tubulopathies with loop or DCT defects


♦ Assessment of kidney function in preterm infants: lifelong implications

♦ Nephron number and its determinants in early life: a primer

♦ Renal tubular dysgenesis

♦ PAX2 in human kidney malformation and disease

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

♦ Recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation

♦ Recurrence of nephrotic syndrome/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis following renal transplantation in children

Atypical HUS

♦ Genetics and complement in atypical HUS

♦ aHUS caused by complement dysregulation: new therapies on the horizon


♦ Understanding renal posttransplantation anemia in the pediatric population

♦ Resistance to erythropoietin-stimulating agents: etiology, evaluation, and therapeutic considerations

♦ Hepcidin in anemia of chronic kidney disease: review for the pediatric nephrologist

Drugs and Kidney

♦ Drug-induced acid-base disorders

♦ The role of genetics in drug dosing

Urinary Tract Infections

♦ Long-term, low-dose prophylaxis against urinary tract infections in young children

Radiology and the Urinary Tract

♦ Imaging in the evaluation of renovascular disease

Renal Tumors in Childhood

♦ Renal tumours: long-term outcome

Chronic Kidney Disorders

♦ Cystic kidney disease: many ways to form a cyst

Renal Biopsy

♦ The renal biopsy in the genomic era


♦ Renal consequences of parenteral nutrition


♦ The management of Childhood urinary incontinence


♦ Vaccinations in children on immunosuppressive medications for renal disease

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